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Human Physiology

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Human Physiology

Stem cells Stem cells– Specialized cells of human body Stem cells play many important roles in our bodies from embryonic development through adulthood. Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair system for the body.
Human intelligence It is the property of mind that encompasses the capacities to reason, plan, problem solve, think, comprehend ideas, use languages, communicate, and learn. Mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one’s environment is all due to human intelligence.
Biotechnology– Promising a brighter future in Health and Medicine From new drugs that address our medical needs and fight epidemics and rare diseases, to produce recombinant vaccines to prevent from many common health problems and diseases, and to ensure safe and affordable food, biotechnology offers us potential benefits.
Tumor markers help to detect cancer in early stages Tumor markers are substances that are produced by cancer or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Most tumor markers are made by normal cells as well as by cancer cells; however, they are produced at much higher levels in cancerous conditions. These substances can be found in the blood, urine, stool, tumor tissue, or other tissues or bodily fluids of some patients with cancer. Thus, tumor markers can help find cancer at an early stage.

The human body consists of close to 100 trillion cells and each one of them is part of an organ system designed to perform essential life functions such as respiration, growth and development, movement, reproduction, control and coordination.

Heart which beats over 60 – 100 times a minute, over 2.5 billion times during the life time, recirculates about 10,000 liters of blood around the body in 24 hours time, supplies all the muscles and tissues with food and oxygen.

Blood containing fresh oxygen travels from the lungs to the heart through pulmonary veins, which is pumped to the rest of the body. Blood with very little oxygen left, returned to the heart from the muscles and tissues is pumped to the Lungs where it is enriched with oxygen before sending it back to the heart.

We take about 23000 breaths every day to draw fresh air and lungs absorb vital oxygen from it into the blood and then passes stale air out. Pumped by the heart, blood collects oxygen from the lungs and dissolved food from liver and delivers it to all parts of the body. Blood is made up of millions of cells floating in a fluid called plasma, with red cells carrying oxygen and white cells fighting infection and platelets making the blood clot when a vessel is damaged.

The brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells and each nerve cell is linked to thousands of other nerve cells. Tiny electrical nerve signals, pulses of electricity that travels ver fast at 100 metres per second, pass through this vast network, representing our thoughts and memories.

The spinal cord carries nerve signals to and fro between the brain and all parts of the body. Nervous system and hormonal or endocrine system help the body′s organs work together.

The adult body is made up of 206 bones, 600 muscles and 22 internal organs. The 206 bones of the skeleton form a strong inner framework for the rest of the body, which is soft. The skull is a domed protective case for the brain, backbone is a strong and yet flexible central support and bones of limbs work like levers. Muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton and pull on them to make the body move.

In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. For example; pancreas makes strong digestive juices and liver makes bile to aid the process of digestion. The resulting nutrients are carried through blood to the liver where it stores the nutrients and send the blood with impurities and substances the body does not need to kidneys. The kidneys receive more than one liter of blood and pass the blood through nearly one million filtering units called nephrons to remove excess water and waste substances from blood.

World Health Organization(WHO) defined health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well–being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" which was later modified to include the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life".

In the medical field, the technical term for health is homeostasis, an organism′s ability to efficiently respond to challenges(stressors) and effectively restore and sustain a "state of balance". Health care is the prevention, treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing and allied health professionals.

Nutrition is the science that studies how what people eat affects their health and performance, foods and dietary supplements that improve performance, promote health, and cure or prevent disease.

Diet such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system, which protects the body from infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells.

Diagnosis is the recognition of a disease or condition by its outward signs and symptoms and analysis of the underlying physiological/biochemical cause(s) of a disease. Medical tests commonly performed are measuring blood pressure, checking pulse rate, listening to the heart with a stethoscope, blood tests, medical imaging and electrocardiogram.

Medicine is the science and art of maintaining and/or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis and treatment of patients. The modern practice of medicine occurs at the many interfaces between the art of healing and various sciences. Working together as an interdisciplinary team, many highly trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the delivery of modern health care.

Some examples include: nurses, laboratory scientists, pharmacists, physiotherapists, radiographers, dietitians,and biomedical engineers. The greatest inventions in the field of medicine over a period of time include surgical needle thermometer, stethoscope, vaccination, anesthetics, electrocardiograph, sphygmomanometer, penicillin, pacemaker, ultrasound scan, MRI enhanced the health care.

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